What Is Eczema?

Eczema is a term used to describe a group of inflamed skin conditions that result in chronic itchy rashes. About 15 million people in the U.S. suffer from some form of eczema. Symptoms vary from person to person but often include dry, red, itchy patches on the skin, which break out in rashes when scratched.

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Who Gets Eczema?

Eczema occurs in both children and adults but usually appears during infancy. Although there is no known cause for the disease, it often affects people with a family history of allergies. 

Those genetically predisposed and then exposed to environmental triggers may develop eczema. Many people with eczema also suffer from allergic rhinitis and asthma or have family members who do.

What Does Eczema Look and Feel Like?

Although eczema may look different from person to person, it is most often characterized by dry, red, extremely itchy patches on the skin. It is sometimes referred to as “the itch that rashes” since the itch, when scratched, results in a rash.

Eczema can occur on just about any part of the body; however, in infants, eczema typically occurs on the forehead, cheeks, forearms, legs, scalp, and neck. In children and adults, it can often appear on the face, neck, and the insides of the elbows, knees, and ankles. 

In some people, eczema may “bubble up” and ooze. The condition may appear more scaly, dry, and red in others. Chronic scratching causes the skin to take on a leathery texture because the skin thickens (lichenification).

Why Is Eczema So Itchy?

Many substances have been identified as itch “triggers” in patients with eczema, and triggers are not the same for every person. Many times it is difficult to determine the exact trigger that causes a flare-up. For some, rough or coarse materials coming into contact with the skin causes itchiness. For others, feeling too hot or sweating will cause an outbreak. Other people find that certain soaps, detergents, disinfectants, contact with juices from fresh fruits and meats, dust mites, and animal saliva and danders may trigger itching. Upper respiratory infections (caused by viruses) may be triggers, and stress can sometimes aggravate an existing flare-up.

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How Common Is Eczema?

The National Institute of Health estimates that 15 million people in the United States have some form of eczema. About 10-20% of all infants have eczema; however, in nearly half of these children, the disease will improve significantly by the time they are between five and 15 years of age. Others will have some form of the disease throughout their lives.

What Is Atopic Dermatitis?

One of the most common forms of eczema is atopic dermatitis (or “atopic eczema”). Approximately 10-20% of the world population is affected by this chronic, relapsing, and very itchy rash at some point during childhood. Fortunately, many children with eczema find that the disease clears and often disappears with age. In general, atopic dermatitis will come and go, often based on external factors. 

Although its cause is unknown, the condition appears to be an abnormal response of the body’s immune system. In people with eczema, the inflammatory response to irritating substances overacts, causing itching and scratching. Eczema is not contagious and, like many diseases, currently cannot be cured. However, the condition may be managed well for most patients with treatment and avoidance of triggers.

Eczema Prevention

Eczema outbreaks can usually be avoided with some simple precautions. The following suggestions may help to reduce the severity and frequency of flare-ups:

  • Prevent scratching
  • Moisturize frequently
  • Avoid sudden changes in temperature or humidity
  • Limit chances of sweating or overheating
  • Reduce stress
  • Stay away from scratchy materials (e.g., wool or other irritants)
  • Refrain from using harsh soaps, detergents, and solvents
  • Avoid environmental factors that trigger allergies (e.g., pollens, molds, mites, and animal dander)
  • Be aware of any foods that may cause an outbreak, and avoid them
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Eczema Treatment

Because eczema is usually dry and itchy, the most common treatment is the application of lotions or creams to keep the skin as moist as possible. These treatments are generally most effective when applied directly after bathing (within three minutes is a standard recommendation) so that the moisture from the bath is “locked in.” Cold compresses applied directly to itchy skin can also help relieve itching.

If the condition persists, worsens, or does not improve satisfactorily, another effective treatment is the application of nonprescription corticosteroid creams and ointments to reduce inflammation. Alternatives to nonprescription corticosteroids include more potent prescription corticosteroid creams and ointments, which are effective but may have some side effects. To prevent side effects such as skin thinning, your doctor may limit the length of treatment time and locations where you can apply the treatment. For severe flare-ups, your doctor may prescribe oral corticosteroids, but be aware that side effects, including new flare-ups, can develop when treatment is discontinued (this treatment is not recommended for long-term use).

Skin affected by eczema may frequently become infected. If this happens to you, your doctor may prescribe topical or oral antibiotics to kill the bacteria causing the infection. 

For severe itching, sedative antihistamines available in both prescription and over-the-counter varieties are sometimes used to reduce the itch. Because drowsiness is a common side effect, antihistamines are often used in the evening to help a person restless from eczema get some sleep. Because of the same sedative effect, though, persons taking these agents should not drive.

Tar treatments and phototherapy are also used and can have positive effects; however, tar can be messy. Phototherapy requires special equipment (lights) available at the Skin Care Doctors' office. Finally, in cases where eczema is resistant to therapy, your physician may prescribe cyclosporine A, which modifies immune response; however, this is used only in extreme cases because of its association with serious side effects.

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Treating Children With Eczema

Children are unique patients because it may be difficult to resist scratching their eczema, making the condition worse. Fortunately, for mild to moderate cases, the application of moisturizer on a regular basis can be beneficial. And in most cases, eczema will disappear as the child ages. In the meantime, avoid as many eczema triggers as possible. Keep your child’s skin moist. After bathing, apply moisturizer within three minutes to retain the moisture in the skin. 

Avoid sudden temperature changes. Keep your child’s bedroom and play areas free of dust mites (a common trigger). Use mild soaps – both on your child’s skin and on their clothing. Dress your child in breathable, preferably cotton, clothing. If these methods fail to help your child, you should seek further advice from a dermatologist. After consultation, an over-the-counter or prescription cream, ointment, antihistamines, or antibiotics may be advised. Regardless, most children will see improvement over time.

Experience Lasting Relief From Itchy Skin

Our medical providers at Skin Care Doctors are highly trained in diagnosing and treating dermatological conditions like eczema. Our offices are equipped with cutting-edge technologies to give you long-lasting relief. If you are tired of having itchy skin, contact our office today for a customized treatment plan prescribed specifically for your skin’s needs.

Better skin health starts here. Schedule your appointment today.

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